Publications Technology

Digital News Report 2018 – Turkey Supplementary Report

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Foreword

I’m very grateful to Dr Servet Yanatma for producing this report on the state of digital information consumption in Turkey.

The research is predicated on evaluation of survey knowledge collected as a part of the Reuters Institute Digital Information Report 2018. The Digital Information Report is the world’s largest ongoing survey of stories consumption, overlaying 37 markets in 2018, of which Turkey was only one. The first objective of this report is to offer a extra detailed examination of the Turkish knowledge, however the place we really feel that it’s helpful, we examine the outcomes from Turkey with these from the opposite markets included within the 2018 research. Full particulars of labor carried out within the different markets are offered in the primary Digital Information Report 2018, which is obtainable from www.digitalnewsreport.org.

Journalism is a extremely contested area in Turkey at current with many research targeted totally on the essential points round freedom of expression. The main target of this report against this is on how information consumption is creating in Turkey. This yr’s report additionally consists of one of many new options from the Digital Information Report 2018, specifically belief scores on the model degree. A number of the tendencies in Turkey are just like these elsewhere. However there are others, the place variations in behaviour could also be linked to the polarised nature of the Turkish political surroundings.

Servet Yanatma’s contribution has been to take a dispassionate take a look at key developments in Turkey, presenting the findings, and putting them in context for individuals not conversant in the Turkish media scene, but in addition leaving the reader free to attract their very own conclusions. The Reuters Institute is grateful to him for all of the work that has gone into this essential report and hopes that it finds a large readership.

Dr David Levy

Former Director, Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism, College of Oxford

Methodology and Background

Basic Observations on Knowledge

This research is predicated on evaluation of knowledge collected as a part of the Reuters Institute Digital Information Report 2018. The unique research was commissioned by the Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism on the College of Oxford (RISJ) to know how information is being consumed in a variety of nations, together with Turkey. Analysis was carried out by YouGov utilizing an internet questionnaire on the finish of January/starting of February 2018. The report is predicated on a survey of greater than 74,000 individuals in 37 markets.

The info have been weighted to targets based mostly on census/business accepted knowledge, reminiscent of age, gender, and area, to characterize the full inhabitants of every nation. The pattern is reflective of the inhabitants that has entry to the web.

As this survey handled information consumption, any respondent who stated that that they had not consumed any information prior to now month was filtered from the outcomes to make sure that irrelevant responses didn’t impression upon knowledge high quality.

A complete on-line questionnaire was designed to seize all points of stories consumption. The questionnaire and the general undertaking methodology have been constant throughout all territories.

The survey was carried out utilizing established on-line panels run by the polling firm YouGov and its companions. As a result of that is a web-based survey the outcomes will under-represent the consumption habits of people who find themselves not on-line (sometimes older, much less prosperous, and with restricted formal schooling). The place related, this has been clarified inside the textual content. The primary objective is to trace the actions and modifications over time inside the digital area – in addition to gaining understanding about how offline media and on-line media are used collectively. A fuller description of the methodology and a dialogue of non-probability sampling methods may be discovered at
www.digitalnewsreport.org.

Together with country-based figures, all through the report combination figures are used based mostly on responses from all respondents throughout all of the nations coated. These figures are meant solely to point general tendencies and must be handled with warning.

Please word that in Turkey (in addition to Brazil, Mexico, and different nations with comparatively low web penetration) the samples are extra consultant of city quite than nationwide populations, which have to be considered when deciphering outcomes.

The unique survey included the next territories: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Eire, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, UK, and USA.

In 14 nations, respondents this yr have been solely capable of take the survey utilizing a desktop or laptop computer pc. Though all different quotas have been met (e.g. age, gender, area), it’s potential that the figures for system use in these nations might have been affected, particularly pc/laptop computer figures could also be inflated and in some nations smartphone and pill numbers could also be decrease than anticipated. It is very important needless to say many individuals use a number of units, and the dataset nonetheless incorporates smartphone and pill customers who additionally use a pc. The nations affected have been Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Brazil, Spain, Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Portugal, Austria, South Korea, Switzerland, Hungary, and Turkey.

The complete questionnaire, in addition to particulars of the samples utilized in every market, may be accessed at www.digitalnewsreport.org.

Particular Observations in Turkish Knowledge

Whereas the samples are over-representative of the city inhabitants in Turkey, the survey was carried out in all geographic areas of the nation and never restricted simply to some main cities. The survey base consists of 2019 respondents. (1007 male, and 1012 feminine).

Determine 1: Age scale of respondents

Determine 2: Political leaning

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Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’, and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. (Usually socialist events can be thought-about ‘left wing’ whereas conservative events can be thought-about ‘proper wing’). With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Notice: excludes respondents who replied ‘Have no idea’.

Government Abstract

Sources of Information

• On-line, together with social media, is on the prime of the record of sources of stories used weekly with a weekly attain of 87%, adopted by TV (77%), printed media (46%), and radio (39%). Two-thirds of our city pattern (66%) use social media for information, although this has declined from a peak of 73% in 2016.

• In response to questions on the primary information sources, TV comes first with 48%, and on-line together with social media (39%) follows. The shares of radio (7%) and printed media (6%) are low as primary sources.

• Whereas the share of respondents citing on-line media as the primary supply of stories had elevated markedly from 32% to 39% between 2015 and 2017, the rise of on-line media has stalled this yr.

• The share of digital-born information retailers (web sites/apps of different information retailers) has not elevated and stays at 7%.

• On-line media (45%) is the first supply for left-wing respondents whereas TV (59%) is for these on the proper.

Information Units and Gateways

• When it comes to units used to entry information on-line, laptop computer/desktop computer systems and smartphones are an important, each as primary sources of stories (42% versus 43%) and when it comes to general weekly attain (computer systems 67% and smartphones 72%).

• The share of smartphones as the primary system used to entry information has risen very considerably from 28% to 43% in three years due primarily to the decline in computer systems, which fell from 55% to 42% in the identical interval. The smartphone thus overtook the pc for the primary time.

• The youthful the respondents the extra they use smartphones to entry information. Within the 18–24 age group 53% use the smartphone as their principal gadget whereas it’s 31% for over 55s.

• Among the many primary gateways to information, search is the first route at 33%. Direct entry and social media comply with it at 29% and 20% respectively.

• For the over 55s, direct entry is the first route whereas search is the popular gateway for different age teams. In addition to search (33%), the share of social media for the youngest cohort (18–24) can also be very excessive at 30%.

Prime Media Manufacturers

• Tv channels clearly proceed to dominate the normal prime manufacturers. FOX TV continues to be probably the most most popular supply each in weekly utilization and as a essential supply, adopted by CNN Türk, NTV, and TRT.

• There are solely two newspapers (Hürriyet and Sözcü) within the prime ten conventional manufacturers.

• CNN Türk, Hürriyet, Mynet, NTV, and Sözcü are the preferred on-line information manufacturers.

Belief in Information

• It’s exceptional that the figures for general belief (38%) and mistrust (40%) in Turkish information media are remarkably comparable. That is an indicator of a really polarised society and information media within the nation.

• Mistrust in information is 2 proportion factors greater than belief this yr, and Turkey shares the highest place for mistrust with three nations.

• Belief is low for social media and search at 33% and 38% respectively.

• Political leaning performs a big position in belief in information. General belief in information is larger on the appropriate (51%) than the left (29%).

• The youngest respondents have the bottom degree of belief in information general, with simply 28% within the 18–24 age group, whereas it’s 43% for over 55s.

• Some manufacturers are trusted far more than others however the report additionally underlines how strongly belief could be influenced by pre-existing views about politics.

Misinformation

• 49% of respondents said that they’ve come throughout ‘tales which might be utterly made up for political or business causes’. Turkey is clearly within the lead on this whereas the typical throughout all 37 nations is 26%.

• This may increasingly mirror a polarised political and media setting however shouldn’t be distinctive to anybody aspect of the political divide. Whereas left-wing respondents reported extra publicity to utterly made-up information at 59%, the determine can also be very excessive for respondents on the centre and the best at 49% and 48% respectively.

Social Media Messaging

• Decline in using Fb for information continued, because it fell by 18 proportion factors up to now three years. The rise of closed messaging providers like WhatsApp additionally continued, up 5 proportion factors this yr, making a 13 proportion level improve over the previous two years. This rise could also be linked to fears about authorities surveillance on social networks.

• Turkey is on the prime of all 37 nations for the proportion (65%) stating concern that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities.

1. Introduction

Turkey was underneath a state of emergency till July 2018 after the failed coup try of July 2016, through which 248 individuals have been killed and a whole lot injured. It has usually helped the ruling AK celebration to steadily strengthen its management over the media. In 2018 the unbiased watchdog Freedom Home categorised Turkey as ‘not free’ for the primary time. Media freedom within the nation has deteriorated over the previous yr with additional intimidation of journalists, the sale of a number one media group to a pro-government businessman, and new legal guidelines to limit web broadcasts.

Probably the most vital improvement is the sale by Turkish media mogul Aydin Dogan of all his media retailers to Demirören Holding, a pro-government conglomerate with pursuits primarily in power and development. Dogan Media owned the top-selling Hürriyet every day, CNN Türk, a nationwide information company, TV channels, radio stations, and the Yay-Sat distribution community. In a leaked telephone dialog with then Prime Minister Tayyip Erdoğan in 2014, the proprietor of Demirören was apparently lowered to tears by the Prime Minister and apologised for a crucial article in his newspaper (the New York Occasions 2018).

Opposition figures have stated the sale creates a ‘huge monopoly’ in Turkish media, and it’s extensively seen as being more likely to additional restrict the free press. Veteran journalist Kadri Gürsel tweeted: ‘By this large takeover together with Hürriyet, the Turkish mass media business comes underneath the direct political management of President Erdoğan.’ It’s vital that the Dogan Group was bigger than Demirören when the ruling get together got here into energy in 2002. After the sale, a number of high-level editors together with the editors-in-chief have been modified, and a number of other journalists have been fired.

Secondly, on the suggestion of the ruling celebration, a regulation on web broadcasting was launched, requiring on-line video-streaming providers to use for a licence from the regulator, RTUK. With no allow entry might be blocked. RTUK checks the content material and has the facility to difficulty fines. Opponents say the federal government is tightening controls with powers to dam and take away content material from information websites and social media already getting used. As 5 of the 9 members on RTUK’s governing council are appointed by the ruling social gathering, critics argue that the licensing mechanism itself is more likely to be abused by the federal government.

Whereas the impression of the regulation is debated, a number one skilled, Yaman Akdeniz, says: ‘Each Turkish media service supplier with web media providers working from outdoors Turkey will probably be topic to licensing.’ (Akdeniz 2018) In concept any journalist or particular person who posts a video on the web will even want a licence. That is more likely to have an effect on various information suppliers, since a lot of the information retailers that may criticise the federal government are on-line, and the web is the primary information supply for individuals who oppose the federal government (Yanatma 2017). Reside streaming via Periscope and YouTube have more and more turn into well-liked at no cost media corresponding to Medyascope TV and Özgürüz. DW Turkish additionally elevated its content material on YouTube by hiring a number of skilled Turkish journalists. Some unbiased journalists, akin to Ünsal Ünlü, stream common stay information exhibits as properly. The YouTube broadcasting of journalists resembling Cüneyt Özdemir has reached giant audiences. Maybe consequently, information utilization of YouTube (9 proportion factors) and Twitter (10 proportion factors) have risen considerably up to now yr.

The circulation of printed media has tended to say no in recent times (TÜİK 2016). Probably the most dramatic lower occurred in 2016 primarily because of the closure of some newspapers after the coup try, with the variety of printed newspapers and magazines declining by 7.9% and general circulation falling by 20% in 2016 in contrast with 2015 (TÜİK 2017). The decline continued into 2017, when general circulation of printed newspapers and magazines decreased by 2.6%.

Determine Three: Circulation of printed media (newspapers and magazines)

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Apart from circulation, promoting revenues for newspapers have taken successful. Printed media’s share of promoting revenues (12%) continued to say no in 2017 by 2.eight proportion factors whereas digital promoting (25.9%) continues to develop and is now second solely to tv (47.eight%) (Deloitte 2018).

Among the many printed media, probably the most essential improvement was the ending of the print version of Habertürk day by day simply after the historic presidential elections on 24 June 2018 resulting from its decreased gross sales and better prices. It was certainly one of Turkey’s largest-circulation newspapers. Mehmet Kenan Tekdağ, chair of the board of administrators of Ciner Yayin Holding, defined the rationale why the print version ended as follows: ‘The price of publishing a newspaper has turn out to be insufferable at a time when ads are primarily channelled into digital media retailers and broadcasters.’ Tekdağ additionally said that the circulation of Turkish newspapers and their share of promoting revenues have been declining steadily whereas printing prices have been rising over the previous 5 years. He added that web platforms have turn out to be extra simply accessible and TV’s share of promoting revenues has additionally elevated. Following the top of its print version Habertürk now focuses on its on-line operations (Hürriyet Every day Information 2018). It will not be shocking if another newspapers additionally shut. Regardless of the decline within the promoting share taken by papers, we’ve additionally seen the launch of two new every day newspapers, Karar in March 2016 and Yeni Yaşam in Might 2018, however their attain is restricted.

This yr, for the primary time, our knowledge present belief scores for particular person information manufacturers. It’s hanging that pro-government retailers like Sabah and Ahaber and public broadcaster TRT have the bottom belief amongst people who find themselves merely conscious of them, whereas media that take a extra crucial line similar to FOX, Cumhuriyet, and Sözcü are on the prime. Conventional media manufacturers utilizing content material repackaged from print, tv, or from information businesses, and digital-born net portals that combination tales from the identical sources, proceed to symbolize the most important on-line media. Aside from them, there are only a few digital-born manufacturers (simply Onedio and OdaTV) within the listing of prime manufacturers used on-line.

Past mainstream media, there are a selection of smaller digital-born manufacturers that proceed to function freely, offering various views. These embrace OdaTV, Duvar, T24, Diken, Bianet, Medyascope TV, Ahval Information, which is funded by Al Arab Publishing, Journo, ArtıTV, and Dokuz8Haber. Nevertheless, they’ve usually not but discovered profitable enterprise fashions, they usually can’t afford to make use of full-time skilled reporters for investigative journalism. They’re principally accessed by educated individuals within the huge cities and try to succeed in different audiences via social media. The Turkish sections of worldwide manufacturers comparable to BBC Turkish and DW additionally produce constant protection of Turkey to be used each inside the nation and by Turks overseas.

2. Sources of Information

2.1. Distribution of Information Sources

Tv and on-line information are probably the most often accessed information sources in Turkey, and there’s virtually no change from 2017 within the place of those when it comes to each weekly use and important information sources. TV and on-line media nonetheless dominate the primary sources. Probably the most exceptional level is that the gradual improve of on-line media as the primary supply has stalled this yr as TV has stored its robust place on this class.

On-line information together with social media is on the prime of the listing of sources of stories used within the final week at 87%. Two-thirds of our city pattern (66%) use social media for information, although this has declined from a peak of 73% in 2016. On-line information is adopted by TV (77%), printed media (46%), and radio (39%). Nevertheless, the rating and recognition of sources change when individuals have been requested to decide on their ‘major supply’ of stories within the final week. TV comes first at 48%, and on-line together with social media (39%) follows. The shares of radio (7%) and printed media (6%) as fundamental sources of stories are very low.

Determine four: Supply of stories within the final week

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Q3. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used within the final week as a supply of stories? Please choose all that apply.

Determine 5: Major information supply

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This fall. You say you’ve used these sources of stories within the final week, which might you say is your MAIN supply of stories?

On-line information together with social media is far more extensively used than TV, nevertheless it stays behind TV because the ‘principal supply’. Whereas social media is cited often as a supply of stories, lower than one-fifth see it as their principal supply at 13%. As to newspapers and radio, there’s a vital distinction between their scores as a weekly, versus most important, information supply. Only a few individuals identify them as their principal supply, however they’re nonetheless extensively used as one weekly supply amongst many at 46% for print media (newspapers and magazines) and 39% for radio.

Determine 6: Supply of stories within the final week over time

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Q3. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used within the final week as a supply of stories? Please choose all that apply.

 

Once we examine the modifications in recent times with 2018, we see a really secure place each in weekly use and primary information sources. The recognition of TV, on-line information, social media, and print are virtually unchanged, whereas radio elevated solely Three proportion factors prior to now yr as a weekly supply. The gradual decline of printed media seems to cease this yr.

Determine 7: Important supply of stories over time

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Q.four You say you’ve used these sources of stories within the final week, which might you say is your MAIN supply of stories?

 

Whereas the modifications are larger for the primary supply of stories between 2015 and 2017, we see a secure state of affairs up to now yr. The exceptional rise of on-line media from 32% to 39% between 2015 and 2017 has stabilised in 2018. TV’s lead as the primary supply is 9 proportion factors forward of on-line.

The distribution of on-line media as the primary information supply deserves nearer examination. We see that the share of digital-born information retailers (web sites/apps of different information retailers) has not elevated this yr, at simply 7%. Social media retained its largest share at 13% with no change in contrast with final yr. The web sites/apps of conventional sources, specifically TV, newspapers, and magazines, nonetheless occupy an essential place on this class. The share for web sites/apps of newspapers is 9%, TV/radio is 7%, and information magazines is 1%.

Determine eight: Distribution of on-line information

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Q3. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used within the final week as a supply of stories? Please choose all that apply.

Determine 9: Most important  information supply and age

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This fall. You say you’ve used these sources of stories within the final week, which might you say is your MAIN supply of stories?

The relation between sources of stories and age could be very pronounced this yr as youthful individuals clearly most popular social and on-line media as their principal information supply in contrast with older audiences who most popular TV information (Yanatma 2017: 21–22). This displays a common development throughout nations; nevertheless, the variation by age in Turkey is just not as robust as that within the common throughout all markets within the survey. There’s a distinction of 14 proportion factors between 18–24-year-olds and people over 55 citing TV as their major supply, and of 19 proportion factors for on-line together with social media. The distinction between these two age teams is bigger in social media the place virtually 4 occasions as many 18–24s cite this as their principal supply in contrast with the over 55s. We additionally see that on-line information is the first supply just for the 18–24 age group. Whereas the variations between on-line and TV are usually not so nice for the 25–44 age group (with round four proportion factors in favour of TV), this distinction rises amongst older respondents.

The primary supply of stories varies strikingly by political leaning. On-line media (45%) is the first supply for left-wing respondents whereas for these on the suitable it’s TV (59%). Excessive utilization of on-line information and social media amongst left-wing respondents in all probability displays the truth that they’re in search of out extra various viewpoints on-line since TV channels are largely managed by the ruling get together. There’s additionally a fantastic distinction (22 proportion factors) between these respondents on the fitting who cite TV as their foremost supply versus on-line media. The distinction between the primary sources cited by left- and right-wing members is hanging when evaluating on-line and TV as principal sources. The extra proper wing individuals are the extra they like TV.

Determine 10: Important supply of stories by political leaning

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You say you’ve used these sources of stories within the final week, which might you say is your MAIN supply of stories? Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’ and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Base: All capable of reply if left/centre/proper

2.2. Prime Manufacturers

Tv channels clearly proceed to dominate the offline model listing. As soon as once more this yr there are solely two newspapers (Hürriyet and Sözcü) within the prime ten. The primary change is the crucial Sözcü every day has an improved place this yr. FOX TV, which is a Turkish prime-time channel, might owe its prime place to its potential to criticise the ruling social gathering. The 24-hour information channels, specifically CNN Türk and NTV, nonetheless have a robust place within the record.

ATV, which is extensively described because the mouthpiece of the ruling get together, and the nationwide broadcaster, TRT, which is a transparent propaganda instrument of the federal government, have a robust viewers too (Yeşil 2016: 116).

All in all, there are solely three Turkish media retailers within the record that may brazenly criticise the ruling get together. They’re FOX TV, Cumhuriyet, and Sözcü. The others are largely seen as pro-government.

Determine 11: Prime TV, print and radio manufacturers

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Q5a. Which of the next manufacturers have you ever used to entry information **offline** within the final week (by way of **TV, radio, print, and different conventional media)?** Please choose all that apply. Base: All. Q5ai. You stated you’ve got used the next manufacturers to entry information offline within the final week… Which of those, if any, did you employ on Three days or extra? Please choose all that apply.

Determine 12: Prime on-line manufacturers

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Q5b. Which of the next manufacturers have you ever used to entry information **on-line** within the final week (by way of **web sites, apps, social media, and different types of Web entry**)? Please choose all that apply. Base: All. Q5bi. You stated you’ve gotten used the next manufacturers to entry information on-line within the final week… Which of those, if any, did you employ on Three days or extra? Please choose all that apply.

Web sites/apps of conventional media, specifically TV and newspapers, dominate the record of prime on-line manufacturers. The 24-hour information channels CNN Türk and NTV and dailies Hürriyet and Sözcü carry out very strongly on-line. Information aggregators, specifically Mynet, Haberler, and Internethaber, stored their positions within the prime ten. Nevertheless, they don’t generate their very own information tales however republish tales from information businesses, newspapers, or TV. Subsequently, the web sources of conventional media are likely to dominate the listing of prime manufacturers.

There isn’t a digital-born information website within the record of prime on-line manufacturers that generates unique information tales and employs its personal columnists. Whereas the official Anatolia Information Company (AA) is in 13th place, its influence is extra vital than this means. It distributes its information content material together with video and pictures to these information organisations that subscribe. The company additionally shares a few of its information tales via its web site and social media accounts and its tales are extensively re-shared on social media.

The position of the company has elevated given that the majority media retailers depend upon its information tales for numerous causes. Firstly, the variety of reporters on the different media retailers has dramatically decreased in recent times whereas the company has a really giant community of journalists. Secondly, media retailers really feel safer utilizing content material from the company as it’s perceived to be ‘permitted info’.

Three. Information Consumption: Units and Gateways

Three.1. Units Used

Smartphones and laptop computer/desktop computer systems are probably the most generally used units to entry information, each as the primary system and when it comes to weekly attain. Probably the most exceptional level is that the smartphone’s share as the primary gadget continued to rise considerably, from 28% to 43% in three years, due primarily to the decline in computer systems, which fell from 55% to 42% in the identical interval. In consequence, smartphones and computer systems are roughly degree this yr when it comes to being recognized as the primary system.

Determine 13: Units used

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Q8A. Which, if any, of the next units do you ever use (for any objective)? Please choose all that apply. Q8B. Which, if any, of the next units have you ever used to entry information within the final week? Please choose all that apply. Q8b6_5. You’ve stated you employ the next units to entry information within the final week, which is your MAIN means of accessing on-line information?

* 2018 pc knowledge could also be overstated – see methodology for extra info.

The figures might overstate using computer systems to entry information on a weekly foundation since respondents this yr have been solely capable of take the survey utilizing a desktop or laptop computer pc.

Determine 14: Most important information gadget to entry information over time

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Q8b6_5. You’ve stated you employ the next units to entry information within the final week, which is your MAIN method of accessing on-line information?

Age is a vital affect on the units used to entry information. The sample throughout all 37 nations is that computer systems are used extra by older individuals whereas youthful generations predominantly use smartphones for accessing information. We see the identical sample in Turkey this yr in the primary units used to entry information. The youthful the respondents the extra they depend on smartphones to entry information. Within the 18–24 age group 53% use the smartphone as their foremost system whereas it’s 31% for over 55s. Pc (laptop computer or desktop) utilization is nearly the mirror picture of this starting from 31% to 55%, with the older respondents making rather more use than youthful teams.

Determine 15: Essential information gadget by age

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Q8b6_5. You’ve stated you employ the next units to entry information within the final week, which is your MAIN method of accessing on-line information?

Three.2. Gateways

The most typical gateway to on-line information in Turkey is seek for each essential and weekly entry. When taking a look at weekly attain, social media (48%) and direct entry (46%) lag behind search. 1 / 4 of respondents entry on-line information by way of cellular alerts, and it’s 9 proportion factors greater than the typical of all nations. E-mail is much less fashionable at 17% however that is forward of the all-country common. Probably the most hanging discovering is the a lot larger reputation of search in Turkey, which at 65% for weekly use is 21 proportion factors larger than the typical.

Determine 16: Gateways to on-line information within the final week

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Q10. Excited about how you bought information on-line (by way of pc, cellular or any system) within the final week, which have been the methods during which you got here throughout information tales? Please choose all that apply.

As to the primary gateways, the clear majority of the respondents in Turkey (70%) entry information via a aspect door (the whole of entry by way of search, social cellular alerts, aggregators, and e-mail) somewhat than going on to a information web site or app. Greater than half (59%) choose to get information by way of search engines like google, social media, or information aggregators, interfaces that use rating algorithms to pick tales, relatively than interfaces pushed by people (homepage, e mail, and cellular notifications). The Turkish figures for accessing information by means of a aspect door and algorithms are each a couple of factors larger than the typical throughout all markets (65% and 53% respectively) (Newman 2018a: 14).

Determine 17: Fundamental gateways to on-line information

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Q10a_new2017_rc. Which of those was the MAIN method during which you got here throughout information within the final week?

Wanting on the major gateways in additional element, search is the first route at 33% in Turkey. Direct entry and social media comply with it at 29% and 20% respectively. The distribution of principal gateways is extra balanced in Turkey compared with the typical throughout the opposite nations, and a excessive reliance on social media is usually a function of nations with comparatively low model loyalty. As Newman factors out, as an example, two-thirds of respondents in Finland (65%) and Norway (62%) choose to go direct to an internet site or app. Elsewhere, most popular entry is usually by way of social media, with over 4 in ten preferring this route in Chile (43%), Bulgaria (42%), and Malaysia (40%). In some Asian nations, aggregators or search are the primary gateways (Ibid. 15). There was no vital change from 2017 within the distribution of important gateways in Turkey.

One of many fundamental findings within the Digital Information Report 2018 is that the fastest-growing gateway to information over the previous three years has been cellular information alerts. This holds true in Turkey the place cellular alerts are in fourth place amongst all nations by weekly entry at 25%.

Determine 18: Primary gateways to on-line information by age – TURKEY

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Q10a_new2017_rc. Which of those was the MAIN means during which you got here throughout information within the final week?

Age performs a task in the primary gateways to on-line information. For the over 55s, direct entry is the first route at 34% whereas search is the popular gateway for different age teams. There’s a hanging distinction between the underneath 25s and the older teams relating to social media and direct entry. As elsewhere, social media (30%) could be very well-liked among the many youngest cohort (18–24), and direct entry is much less common at 20%. There’s virtually no vital change among the many over-25 age teams with very comparable numbers selecting social media as their principal supply. We do see a gradual distinction in direct entry, with older teams preferring direct entry, in all probability due to higher model loyalty.

Determine 19: Primary gateways to on-line information by age – ALL MARKETS

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Q10a_new2017_rc. Which of those was the MAIN approach during which you got here throughout information within the final week? Base: All.

four.1. Belief in Information

Declining belief within the media in recent times is noteworthy throughout most of the nations surveyed (Newman 2018: 17), and there’s an ongoing international dialogue on learn how to struggle towards misinformation and so-called ‘pretend information’. Turkey is among the nations on the centre of this problem, partially due to reducing ranges of media freedom and growing political polarisation, which is mirrored within the information media. Whereas we keep away from worldwide comparability when it comes to rating amongst all markets, provided that the nations in 5 continents within the survey have totally different media methods and political understanding, the excessive degree of mistrust in media in Turkey is hanging and it shares the highest place together with Greece, Bulgaria, and the USA.

As with final yr, crucial level relating to the figures for general belief and mistrust in Turkish information media is that they’re remarkably shut to one another: 38% of individuals stated that they belief most information more often than not, and 40% of individuals stated they don’t belief most information more often than not. The proportion who ‘neither agree nor disagree’ is 22%.

Extra vital, mistrust is 2 proportion factors larger than belief this yr whereas belief was 2 proportion factors larger than mistrust in 2017.

As we underlined in final yr’s report (Yanatma 2017: 30), one may anticipate decrease belief ranges in a rustic the place the media are largely managed by the federal government. However this ignores the truth that belief could also be excessive amongst those that agree with the federal government, which appears to be the case in Turkey. Subsequently, the phenomenon of comparable belief and mistrust scores might be attributed to the very polarised society and information media within the nation. Extra detailed examination of the model belief scores, information retailers, and political leaning within the the rest of this chapter will illustrate this polarisation.

Whereas 38% of Turkish respondents belief information general, this determine will increase barely to 43% when they’re requested particularly about belief within the information they use. However it’s nonetheless exceptional that solely 43% of respondents belief the information that they use.

The share of those that ‘disagree’ with the propositions on belief thereby indicating mistrust can also be very vital. As famous the extent of mistrust in Turkey could be very excessive at 40%. The proportion who ‘disagree’ with ‘belief in information I exploit’ is 33%. It’s putting that 33% of respondents brazenly state that they mistrust the information they use. All these figures are a sign of each mistrust in information media and excessive polarisation.

Determine 20: Belief and mistrust in information

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Q6_2018_1/2/Three/four. Please point out your degree of settlement with the next statements. I feel you’ll be able to belief ‘most information’/’information I eat’/’information in social media’/’information in search engines like google’ more often than not.

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Q6_2016_1. I feel you possibly can belief most information more often than not.

Once we examine the belief leads to Turkey with the typical of all markets within the survey, we see that each belief in information general and belief within the information ‘I exploit’ are decrease in Turkey by 6 proportion factors and eight proportion factors respectively. With regards to mistrust in information, the Turkish figures for information general are 14 proportion factors greater than the typical of all markets, and 13 proportion factors greater for mistrust in information ‘I exploit’.

Moreover, evaluating the distinction between belief and mistrust in information in Turkey and the typical of all markets offers a helpful method to see the extent of polarisation in information media in Turkey. The distinction between general belief and mistrust is 2 proportion factors, and it’s 10 proportion factors for information ‘I exploit’ in Turkey. Nevertheless, within the common throughout all markets this distinction is 18 proportion factors and 31 proportion factors respectively. We consider that the nearer belief and mistrust ranges are the extra information media is polarised.

This yr, the survey included specific questions relating to belief in social media and search. In Turkey, belief in social media and search is excessive in contrast with the typical of all nations within the survey, at 33% for social media and 38% for search. It’s shocking that the degrees of belief in information general and in search are equal at 38% whereas one may anticipate decrease belief ranges for search as within the common throughout all markets. Equally, there’s a comparatively excessive degree of belief in social media, simply 5 proportion factors under the determine for belief in information general. This is perhaps attributed to the truth that individuals discover social media freer and worth it as a means of accessing various viewpoints.

Belief by political leaning can also be revealing. General belief in information is larger on the fitting (51%) than the left (29%). Predictably it will increase throughout all political orientations when respondents are requested concerning the ‘information I exploit’ with 59% on the fitting and 35% on the left. The rationale why general mistrust in information (54%) is larger on the left than the fitting (32%) is probably going on account of a way that the ruling celebration largely controls the media, and the very restricted variety of important or neutral information media. Remarkably, the extent of mistrust in ‘information I exploit’ can also be greater on the left (44%) than the fitting (24%). It appears that evidently the underlying drivers of distrust are linked with deep-rooted political polarisation and perceived mainstream media bias.

As well as, we see a really exceptional lower in belief in information and improve in mistrust on the left in contrast with 2017. Up to now yr general belief in information declined eight proportion factors, and it fell 9 proportion factors within the information that respondents use. In return, mistrust elevated 9 proportion factors in information general, and eight proportion factors in information that they use. We additionally discover a slight improve of three proportion factors on the appropriate in general belief in information.

Determine 22: General belief in information by political leaning and age

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Q6_2016_1. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’ and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Base: All capable of reply if left/centre/proper.

Determine 23: Belief in information ‘I exploit’ by political leaning and age

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Q6_2016_6. I feel I can belief a lot of the information I eat more often than not. Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’ and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Base: All capable of reply if left/centre/proper.

Age can also be a big driver of belief. Consistent with the worldwide development, the youngest respondents have the bottom degree of belief in information general, with simply 28% within the 18–24 age group whereas it’s 43% for over 55s. The identical applies to belief within the ‘information ‘I exploit’, the place the older the respondents the upper the belief, with a variation of 12 proportion factors between the youngest and oldest age teams. We have now seen that older respondents have stronger model loyalties. Greater belief in information that they use for the older individuals might mirror established political loyalties and therefore correspondingly excessive ranges of belief in media retailers which are aligned with these.

four.2 Model Belief Scores and Polarisation in Information Media

This yr, apart from basic belief in information, the survey explores the belief that respondents place in particular information manufacturers. Respondents have been requested to point their belief in chosen information manufacturers, on a scale of zero (utterly untrustworthy) to 10 (utterly reliable). The query additionally included the choice of selecting ‘I’ve not heard of this model’. As anticipated, belief by individuals who have heard of the model and people who use it varies. We see that the kind of media supply, corresponding to TV, print, and digital born, doesn’t appear to find out the extent of belief in each classes.

Taking a look at belief by individuals who have merely heard of the model, the diploma to which manufacturers are seen as being pro-government of their protection appears to be the decisive issue on this class. The manufacturers that function because the mouthpiece of the ruling get together are positioned on the backside, with the pro-government ones simply above. As an example, the one two manufacturers rated under 5 factors are Ahaber information channel and Sabah every day, which each belong to the identical media group, Turkuvaz, which is essentially referred to as the mouthpiece of the ruling social gathering (Yesil 2016: 116). Public broadcaster TRT and the official Anatolian Information Company (AA) even have decrease belief scores. FOX TV, which takes a extra important line, is on the prime. The dailies Cumhuriyet and Sözcü, that are severely crucial of the ruling AK get together, are within the prime 5 locations as nicely.

Determine 24: Model belief scores (zero–10)

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Q6_2018. How reliable would you say information from the next manufacturers is? Use the size under, the place zero is ‘by no means reliable’ and 10 is ‘utterly reliable’.

However, figures for belief by individuals who have used every model give a really totally different image because the retailers with a transparent political stance, whether or not that’s pro-government or extremely essential, have higher scores. The AA scores greatest and TRT is in fourth place when measured on this approach. The crucial retailers Sözcü and Cumhuriyet share fifth place. FOX TV retains its robust place and comes second on this class as nicely.

The detailed evaluation of brand name belief rating by those that have heard of the model offers a strong image of polarisation within the information media. We have now seemed on the proportion of ‘under no circumstances reliable (zero)’ scores for every model within the survey, as scoring ‘zero’ signifies that folks consciously keep away from utilizing information from these manufacturers. There are a number of manufacturers that clearly elicit some very destructive emotions.

Determine 25: Proportion of that scored ‘By no means reliable (zero)’

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Q6_2018. How reliable would you say information from the next manufacturers is? Use the size under, the place zero is ‘under no circumstances reliable’ and 10 is ‘utterly reliable’. Base: Those that have heard of the model.

Taking a transparent political stance has an impression on the extent of ‘zero’ scores. This will apply whether or not protection is both pro-government or essential of the ruling get together. As soon as extra, Ahaber and Sabah are on the prime of the listing. Within the survey 22% of respondents scored Ahaber as ‘under no circumstances reliable’ indicating that over one-fifth of respondents by no means belief this model. TRT and AA are subsequent. The dailies Sözcü and Cumhuriyet, that are very important of presidency, comply with these, however their proportion is decrease.

The distinction within the belief scores between those that have used versus those that have heard of the manufacturers offers an perception into one other facet of media polarisation. It isn’t shocking that the highest six manufacturers on this rating are similar with these having the very best scores for being ‘under no circumstances reliable (zero)’. The higher the distinction between belief by those that had ‘used’ versus merely ‘heard’ of manufacturers, the extra they have a tendency to have a transparent political stance of their protection. There’s a notably excessive degree of polarisation amongst media manufacturers that function as mouthpieces of the ruling celebration.

Determine 26: Belief distinction between ‘used’ and ‘heard of’ manufacturers

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Q6_2018. How reliable would you say information from the next manufacturers is? Use the size under, the place zero is ‘by no means reliable’ and 10 is ‘utterly reliable’. Base: Those that have used/heard of the model.

We will additionally take a look at the brand-level belief scores by way of a political lens. On this chart, the belief scores of those that self-identify on the correct are represented by blue dots, these from the left by pink dots, and people within the centre by orange dots. The broader gaps between the appropriate and the left exhibits the partisan belief. We see robust variations in model belief in accordance with totally different political leanings, particularly for half of the manufacturers analysed. TRT Haber, Ahaber, Anadolu Ajansı, and Sabah have a lot larger ranges of belief from these on the best (represented by the blue dots) whereas Cumhuriyet, Sözcü, and FOX TV present the reverse. These on the correct give TRT Haber a rating of eight.zero, with left-leaning respondents score the general public broadcaster simply Three.2. Sözcü will get a excessive score from the left (7.Three) and a low one from these on the correct (Three.eight). Ahaber can also be nicely trusted on the proper (6.9) however these on the left give it a rating of lower than Three (2.6).

Left-leaning respondents (marked in pink on the chart) strongly mistrust most of the information manufacturers resembling TRT Haber, Ahaber, Anadolu Ajansı, and Sabah. Proper-leaning respondents present equally low ranges of belief in two manufacturers, the Sözcü and Cumhuriyet dailies. The least polarising manufacturers are CNN Türk, Hürriyet, and Mynet. It signifies that these media retailers are seen to undertake a comparatively affordable strategy in contrast with those having a transparent political stance whether or not on the suitable or left. Nevertheless, this can be a relative notion, which doesn’t essentially imply that these manufacturers present well-balanced and truthful protection.

Determine 27: Common degree of belief in information manufacturers by political leaning

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Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’, and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Q6_2018. How reliable would you say information from the next manufacturers is? Use the size under, the place zero is ‘under no circumstances reliable’ and 10 is ‘utterly reliable’. Base: Left /Centre/Proper.

Word: Individuals who indicated that they haven’t heard of a model have been excluded.

5. Misinformation, ‘Pretend Information’, and Information Literacy

5.1. Misinformation and ‘Pretend Information’

With Turkey being one of many nations with probably the most polarised politics and information media, misinformation has been a key situation in recent times. Because the nation skilled each a historic referendum giving the President sweeping new powers in 2017 and the primary election underneath this new political system in 2018, misinformation and so-called ‘pretend information’ have been on the centre of political debates. Which will assist clarify the expansion of some credible fact-checking organisations in Turkey.

This yr’s survey measured individuals’s self-reported publicity to the totally different types of misinformation that set off public concern. As Fletcher underlines, publicity is clearly a lot more durable to measure than concern ‘as a result of in some instances it depends on individuals’s capacity to appropriately determine info that has been intentionally designed to be deceptive, and since what precisely constitutes misinformation is partly subjective’ (Fletcher 2018a: 39). Respondents have been requested which forms of misinformation they’ve personally come throughout within the final week.

‘Tales the place details are spun or twisted to push a specific agenda’ at 53% is positioned on the prime on this query. After Greece and Croatia, Turkey is in third place together with Bulgaria and Hungary. Extra importantly, 49% of respondents said that they’ve come throughout ‘tales which are utterly made up for political or business causes’. This locations Turkey on the prime of the record for this in contrast with the typical of all nations of 26%.

In the meantime, as is defined within the methodology part and must be clear from the wording of the query, the survey doesn’t got down to calculate the quantity of ‘pretend information’ in Turkey. Respondents have been requested ‘which of the next have you ever personally come throughout’ within the final week, and one of many decisions was ‘tales which are utterly made up for political or business causes’. The figures subsequently merely mirror the extent of publicity reported by respondents, not the quantity of ‘pretend information’. We’re additionally conscious that publicity is clearly onerous to measure since ‘it depends on individuals’s capability to appropriately determine info’ (Ibid. 39).

Determine 28: Proportion who say they have been uncovered to every sort of misinformation – TURKEY

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Q_FAKE_NEWS_3. Within the LAST WEEK which of the next have you ever personally come throughout? Please choose all that apply. Base: Those that expressed publicity.

Determine 29: Proportion who say they have been uncovered to utterly made-up information within the final week – ALL MARKETS

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Q_FAKE_NEWS_3. Within the LAST WEEK which of the next have you ever personally come throughout? ‘Tales which might be utterly made up for political or business causes.’ Base: Those that expressed publicity.

Determine 30: Proportion who say they have been uncovered to utterly made-up information by political leaning

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Q_FAKE_NEWS_3. Within the LAST WEEK which of the next have you ever personally come throughout? Tales which are utterly made up for political or business causes. Base: Those that expressed publicity. Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’ and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Base: All capable of reply if left/centre/proper.

One may anticipate people who find themselves essential of the Turkish authorities to be almost certainly to report publicity to utterly made-up information due to disquiet on the ruling celebration’s management of huge elements of the media. Response by political leaning confirms this with 59% of left-wing respondents reporting such publicity. Nevertheless, numerous these within the centre and on the proper additionally reported being uncovered to utterly made-up information, at 49% and 48% respectively. We can’t be positive about what that they had in thoughts however it appears possible that folks supporting the opposition events have been principally referring to the protection of pro-government media whereas the supporters of the ruling celebration have been considering not solely of the essential on-line information media but in addition posts by activists on social media.

When concern over or publicity to misinformation is excessive, it raises the query of who ought to work to fight it. Our survey requested individuals whether or not they thought that media corporations, know-how corporations, or authorities ought to do extra to separate what’s actual and what’s pretend on the web. In Turkey, 78% of respondents thought that media corporations and journalists ought to do extra, with 76% selecting know-how corporations like Fb and Google. Additionally, 68% stated that authorities ought to do extra to separate what’s actual and what’s pretend on the web. This very excessive determine in such a polarised society might seem shocking however displays the custom of a robust central state in Turkey, though it’s fascinating that folks on the suitable are much more inclined to agree with this (84%) than these on the left (65%) or within the centre (69%).

Determine 31: Proportion who agree that every ought to do extra to separate what’s actual and what’s pretend on the web

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Q_FAKE_NEWS_4_2_1-Three. Please point out your settlement with the next statements. Know-how corporations/media corporations/the federal government ought to do extra to make it simpler to separate what’s actual and faux on the web.

5.2. Information Literacy

Richard Fletcher factors out that ‘discussions over misinformation, disinformation, and “pretend information” have reignited curiosity in information literacy’ (Fletcher 2018b: 34) in recent times. Subsequently, the survey consists of inquiries to measure the extent of stories literacy in every nation. On this analysis, information literacy ‘refers to information about how the information is made: who makes it, how it’s chosen, and the way it’s financed’ (Ibid.). Respondents have been requested three factual questions on totally different dimensions of how information is made. We’re conscious that ‘three questions can’t precisely measure precisely how educated an individual is about a problem as complicated and multifaceted as information manufacturing’ (Ibid.). Nonetheless, it supplies very helpful knowledge to know information literacy information ranges of respondents. However, we should always underline that this knowledge represents city Turkey because the survey was carried out on-line, and the schooling degree of our respondents was very excessive.

Determine 32: Which of the next information retailers does NOT rely totally on promoting for monetary help?

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Q14_2018a. Which of the next information retailers does NOT rely totally on promoting for monetary help.

The primary and primary query aimed to determine the general public broadcaster from an inventory of tv and print retailers that rely totally on promoting for monetary help. Within the survey 52% of respondents answered this query appropriately. It’s four proportion factors larger than the typical of all nations within the survey.

Greater than 90% of the general public broadcaster Turkish Radio Tv’s (TRT) funding comes from a tax levied on electrical energy payments and licence charges (Kaplıca 2014). All electrical energy shoppers in Turkey contribute 2% of their payments to TRT (Anatolian Information Company 2017), and this quantity is clearly seen on the payments. This regulation is repeatedly criticised by the opposition events because the protection of TRT has develop into increasingly more pro-government in recent times. Subsequently, it’s well-known that TRT is publicly funded in Turkey.

Determine 33: Which of the next is usually chargeable for writing a press launch?

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Q14_2018b. Which of the next is usually chargeable for writing a press launch?

The second query requested respondents who they thought was sometimes chargeable for writing a press launch. Solely 16% of respondents answered this appropriately whereas the typical of all nations is 26%.

Determine 34: How are a lot of the particular person selections about what information tales to point out individuals on Fb made?

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Q14_2018c. How are a lot of the particular person selections about what information tales to point out individuals on Fb made?

The third query requested about how information is chosen on social media. It’s a vital query in a time that social media has emerged as an essential supply of stories. It has more and more turn into an alternate platform for information as the federal government has largely taken management of Turkish media. Consistent with the typical of all markets, 27% of respondents appropriately said that a lot of the particular person selections about information individuals see on Fb are made by pc evaluation of what tales may curiosity them.

Determine 35: Information literacy scale based mostly on variety of right solutions

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Q14_2018a_combined2. Information literacy scale.

We see that one-third (32%) didn’t get any of those questions right: 45% of respondents answered one query appropriately, and 21% two questions. Solely Three% answered all three questions appropriately. Once we take a look at the connection between information literacy degree and different variables, we see that age and gender don’t impression a lot on these scores. Nevertheless, as anticipated, information literacy will increase among the many extra educated and extra prosperous respondents. Individuals with larger ranges of stories literacy additionally are likely to eat information from a wider vary of sources.

6.1. Prime Social Media and Messaging for Information

The Digital Information Report 2018 explores the rise in using messaging apps for information and the way that is associated to the decline in use of Fb for information. The worldwide report reveals that extra individuals have been utilizing messaging apps corresponding to WhatsApp for any function (44%), whereas common utilization for information has greater than doubled to 16% in 4 years. It additionally exhibits that using Fb for information has been falling since 2016 in lots of nations (Kalogeropoulos 2018: 51).

The worldwide development usually holds true in Turkey, however with a fair bigger variety of respondents preferring to share information or speak privately by prompt messenger (32% versus 17% for the worldwide common) as an alternative of doing so publicly. The sharp downturn in using Fb and the rise of closed messaging for information could also be associated to fears about authorities surveillance, as Turkey is on the prime amongst all nations within the proportion stating concern that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities.

Determine 36: Proportion that used every social community for any objective within the final week

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Q12A. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used for any function within the final week? Please choose all that apply.

Determine 37: Proportion that used every social community for information within the final week

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Q12B. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used for locating, studying, watching, sharing, or discussing information within the final week? Please choose all that apply.

We see that each one social media networks and messaging purposes are extra in style in Turkey than the typical of all markets (besides Fb Messenger for any function). When it comes to utilizing social networks for any objective within the final week, a number of of them are highly regarded. Twitter is used greater than twice as a lot in Turkey (51%) than the typical throughout all nations (20%). Instagram can also be twice as fashionable in Turkey (59%) than all nations (30%). For WhatsApp on this class, use in Turkey at 74% is 30 proportion factors forward of the typical for all markets (44%).

As for using social networks and messaging apps for information, virtually all of them are used much more in Turkey than the typical of all nations (besides Fb Messenger with just one proportion level margin). The distinction is especially pronounced in using WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube for information. WhatsApp use for information is 30% in Turkey whereas the typical within the survey is 16%. Twitter for information in Turkey is 35% whereas for all nations is simply 10%. Using Instagram for information can also be growing in Turkey at 24% whereas it’s 7% in all nations.

Determine 38: Prime social media and messaging for information over time

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Q12B. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used for locating, studying, watching, sharing, or discussing information within the final week? Please choose all that apply.

 

It may be exhausting to separate social networks from messaging purposes (Ibid. 51). Whereas Twitter and Instagram will not be primarily messaging purposes, they’ve messaging constructed into their service. Our survey doesn’t embrace any questions on this challenge, however we expect that these social networks, specifically Twitter and Instagram, are more and more used for messaging in Turkey.

Once we take a look at the change over time in use of those social networks and purposes for information, we see a hanging lower in Fb of 18 proportion factors in three years. After declining up to now two years, using Twitter for information elevated by 10 proportion factors this yr. Turkey is definitely on the prime of the listing among the many 37 nations in using Twitter for information. The gradual improve of Instagram can also be exceptional provided that it rose 14 proportion factors in three years. We don’t see any change in using Fb Messenger since final yr.

As with final yr, there’s one other hanging rise in using the closed messaging service WhatsApp, up by 5 proportion factors. It’s in all probability linked to a local weather the place it’s unsafe for individuals, particularly state staff, to criticise the federal government on social media so individuals use safer messaging apps for sharing information. Turkey is in second place amongst European nations in using WhatsApp for information, behind Spain (36%), and tenth place throughout all markets. The numerous level is that use of WhatsApp for information could be very low in Western nations whereas it is extremely excessive in Latin American nations (Brazil 48% and Argentina 37%) and a few Asian territories (Malaysia 54% and Singapore 42%).

Determine 39: Proportion involved that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities – ALL MARKETS

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Q13a_2018_1.Please point out your degree of settlement with the next statements. ‘I have a tendency to think twice about expressing my political beliefs brazenly on the web as a result of this might get me into hassle with the authorities’.

Determine 40: Self-expressed concern concerning the security of posting political messages and use of WhatsApp for information

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Q13a_2018_1. Please point out your degree of settlement with the next statements. ‘I have a tendency to think twice about expressing my political beliefs brazenly on the web as a result of this might get me into hassle with the authorities’. Which, if any, of the next have you ever used for locating, studying, watching, sharing, or discussing information within the final week?

 

Turkey is on the prime within the proportion involved that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities: 65% of respondents assume this whereas the typical for all nations is 37%. That is unsurprising since lots of of individuals have been prosecuted in Turkey due to their shares and feedback on social media. Extra importantly, the newest state of emergency decree lists social media posts among the many causes justifying dismissal from state employment (Ahval Information 2018; the Guardian 2018).

The Digital Information Report 2018 finds a robust correlation between use of networks like WhatsApp for information and self-expressed concern concerning the security of posting political messages. Customers in some ‘much less free’ nations are extra probably to think twice earlier than expressing their political beliefs on-line. Newman factors out that a protected place free of charge expression has been one issue driving the speedy progress of messaging apps in markets like Turkey, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. He explains the case of Turkey as follows: ‘In a rustic that the US NGO Freedom Home lately labelled “not free” for the primary time, encrypted messaging apps like WhatsApp have proved a comparatively protected method to categorical political beliefs.’ (Newman 2018a: 13)

Determine 41: Involved that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities by political leaning

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Q13a_2018_1. Please point out your degree of settlement with the next statements. ‘I have a tendency to think twice about expressing my political beliefs brazenly on the web as a result of this might get me into hassle with the authorities’. Q1F. Some individuals speak about ‘left’, ‘proper’ and ‘centre’ to explain events and politicians. With this in thoughts, the place would you place your self on the next scale? Base: All capable of reply if left/centre/proper.

At first look one may assume that people who find themselves probably the most important of the federal government can be extra involved that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities. Whereas it’s true that respondents on the left (72%) are barely extra involved, the scores for the centre and proper are additionally very excessive at 66% and 61% respectively. These figures present that it isn’t solely these respondents who help the opposition events however all elements of society which might be involved.

6.2. Participation: Information Sharing and Commenting

Information sharing and commenting in any approach, together with social media, nose to nose, or e mail, is especially excessive in Turkey: 56% of respondents share information and 44% of respondents touch upon information in Turkey in contrast with 39% and 25% respectively throughout all markets. The political leaning of Turkish respondents has no noticeable influence on the extent of stories sharing and commenting.

Determine 42: General information share and remark

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Q13. Throughout a mean week by which, if any, of the next methods do you share or take part in information protection? Please choose all that apply.

It’s putting that, whereas Turkey is on the prime of the nations coated within the report for self-expressed concern concerning the security of posting political messages, sharing or commenting on a information story by way of a social community (e.g. Fb, Twitter, LinkedIn) can also be very excessive in Turkey, with 38% for sharing and 35% for commenting in contrast with 26% and 20% respectively in all nations. And within the space the place one may anticipate most concern, specifically commenting on a information story by way of a social community, Turkey is within the lead throughout all 37 nations. The gradual decline over time in commenting stopped this yr. After an eight proportion level fall within the earlier two years, commenting has risen four proportion factors this yr. As soon as once more there isn’t a vital distinction in commenting by political leaning; it’s 41% on the left, 42% on the correct, and 35% within the centre. It might appear that sharing and commenting is used not solely to criticise the federal government, but in addition to help it too.

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Q13. Throughout a mean week by which, if any, of the next methods do you share or take part in information protection? Please choose all that apply. Base: Share/touch upon a information story by way of social community (e.g. Fb, Twitter, LinkedIn).

7. Conclusion

The sale of Turkey’s largest media conglomerate to a pro-government businessman is undoubtedly one of many crucial developments in Turkish media up to now decade. It was described by Reporters With out Borders’ Turkish consultant as marking ‘the dying of pluralism and unbiased journalism’ in Turkey’s mainstream media (Butler and Toksabay 2018). As on-line information, together with social media, has more and more develop into an alternate platform for information, the federal government has additionally intensified its strain on on-line media. The broader political environment impacts on behaviour on-line and helps clarify why Turkey is on the prime of the 37 nations when it comes to the proportion of individuals involved that brazenly expressing their political beliefs on-line might get them into hassle with the authorities. The rise in use of messaging purposes for information is one other facet of this development. The political setting will proceed to affect the web media panorama in coming years.

The excessive degree of mistrust in information can also be exceptional in Turkey as it’s greater than belief, displaying the extent of media polarisation. The respondents appear to be divided into two camps in trusting or distrusting information media. As well as, half the respondents stated that they have been uncovered to utterly made-up information within the final week, putting Turkey on the prime of the 37 nations.

The position of digital-born information media continues to be not notably robust and the web sites or cellular purposes of televisions and newspapers occupy the highest locations within the on-line model listing. Small-scale on-line information platforms face each political and monetary pressures. On the monetary aspect, whereas digital promoting has usually elevated considerably in recent times, the share going to those digital-born information platforms could be very restricted. Donations and crowdfunding might probably present an alternate however will not be widespread in Turkey and to date just a few particular person journalists have made use of them. Exterior worldwide donor funds and people from the European Union can be inadequate to help high-quality unbiased journalism in Turkey. Unbiased digital-born media might want to persuade their viewers to pay immediately for on-line information, whether or not by means of subscription, membership, or donations. Nevertheless, they could meet reluctance due to fears of presidency surveillance.

 

Ahval Information. 2018. ‘Newest Decree Exhibits Social Media Posts amongst Causes for Dismissal’, eight July, https://ahvalnews.com/turkey/latest-decree-shows-social-media-posts-among-reasons-dismissal. (Accessed Sep. 2018)

Akdeniz, Y. 2018. ‘Evaluation of the Draft Provision on the “Presentation of Media Providers By way of Web” to the Turkish Regulation No. 6112 on the Institution of Radio and Tv Enterprises and Their Media Providers’, February, https://www.osce.org/representative-on-freedom-of-media/373846?download=true. (Accessed Apr. 2018)

Anatolian Information Company. 2017. ‘Industrialists to No Longer Fund Turkey Broadcaster TRT’, 10 Might, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/industrialists-to-no-longer-fund-turkey-broadcaster-trt/815799. (Accessed Sep. 2018)

Butler, D. and Toksabay, E. 2018. ‘Sale of Dogan Set to Tighten Erdogan’s Grip over Turkish Media’, Reuters, 22 March, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-dogan-holding-m-a-demiroren/sale-of-dogan-set-to-tighten-erdogans-grip-over-turkish-media-idUSKBN1GY0EL. (Accessed Aug. 2018)

Deloitte. 2018. ‘Türkiye’de tahmini medya ve reklam yatırımları, 2017’, March, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/tr/Documents/technology-media-telecommunications/RD%20Medya%20Yatirimlari%20Tablo_MART%202018.pdf. (Accessed Apr. 2018)

Fletcher, R. 2018a. ‘Misinformation and Disinformation Unpacked’, in Reuters Institute Digital Information Report 2018. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism, 38–41.

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Concerning the writer

Dr Servet Yanatma was a visiting fellow on the Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism on the College of Oxford within the educational yr of 2017–18. He was additionally a journalist fellow on the Reuters Institute within the educational yr of 2015–16. Throughout that friendship he wrote a analysis paper entitled ‘Media Seize and Promoting in Turkey: The Impression of the State on Information’. In 2017 he ready the Reuters Institute Digital Information Report 2017 – Turkey Supplementary Report. Servet holds a BA and an MA in historical past from the Bogazici College in Istanbul. In 2015 he accomplished his PhD programme at Center East Technical College with a thesis on ‘The Worldwide Information Businesses within the Ottoman Empire, 1854–1908’.

Acknowledgements

The writer could be very grateful to the next individuals for his or her contributions and help: Dr David Levy, former Director of the Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism, and Dr Richard Fletcher, Analysis Fellow on the Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism.

Any opinions expressed are these of the writer.

Revealed by the Reuters Institute for the Research of Journalism with the help of the Google Information Initiative.

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